Kind radiation carbon dating

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Over time, as potential NORM hazards have been identified, these industries have increasingly become subject to monitoring and regulation.However, there is as yet little consistency in NORM regulations among industries and countries.The two most important chains providing nuclides of significance in NORM are the thorium series and the uranium series: Another major source of terrestrial NORM is potassium 40 (K-40).The long half-life of K-40 (1.25 billion years) means that it still exists in measurable quantities today.It is found in many foodstuffs (bananas for example), and indeed fills an important dietary requirement, ending up in our bones.(Humans have about 65 Bq/kg of K-40 and along with those foods are therefore correspondingly radioactive to a small degree.This means that material which is considered radioactive waste in one context may not be considered so in another.

The materials may be original (such as uranium and thorium) or decay products thereof, forming part of characteristic decay chain series, or potassium-40.By contrast, terrestrial NORM – especially radon – contributes to the majority of natural dose, usually over 1000 microsieverts (1 m Sv) per year.Some of the main comsogenic nuclides are shown in Table 1, carbon-14 being important for dating early human activities.All minerals and raw materials contain radionuclides of natural origin.The most important for the purposes of radiation protection are the radionuclides in the U-238 and Th-232 decay series.

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